Abrasion-Resistant White Cast Iron 11-ASTM A532_A532M

Abrasion-Resistant White Cast Iron 11

-ASTM A532_A532M


2.2 low alloy white cast iron

The main eutectic carbides in low alloy white cast iron are M3C type (HV most in 1100~1400). The distribution of eutectic carbide is reticulate. And the toughness is low. Most of the eutectic carbides can only be used in the field of low stress abrasive wear. In conclusion the common application of low alloy white cast iron in grinding balls are:

  1. A. Cr- Mo – Cu  low alloy white cast iron

Because the production of Ni in China is less. And also the price is more expensive. As a result the Ni – Hard cast iron application is very slow. And also the requirement of ball and lining is large quantity and wide application area. Therefore Cr – Mo – Cu white cast iron has more application instead of Ni -Hard cast iron. The cast state hardness of the cast iron is about 50HRC. After hardening heat treatment, hardness can be HRC57 ~ 62 and αk can almost reach 7J / cm2. The main components were probably 2.4% to 3.2%C, 0.8 to 1.3%Si, 0.8 to 3.0%Mn, 0.2 to 0.5%Mo, 0.2 to 0.5%Cu.

  1. B. Manganese molybdenum and manganese tungsten low alloy white cast iron

On the basis of the composition of medium manganese, added 0.8 to 1.5%Mo, or 2.5% ~ 3.5%W. And the as-cast HRC was 53~58. αk was 5 to 6J / cm2. Most of them were for the production of vulnerable parts. Such as impurities pump and shot blasting machine. And also some used for grinding ball.

Abrasion-Resistant White Cast Iron 10-ASTM A532_A532M

Abrasion Resistant White Cast Iron 10-ASTM A532_A532M


  1. 2. Brief introduction to the abrasion-resistant white cast iron in China

In China there have two stages on the abrasion resistant white cast iron of the research. Before 60s the main research is ordinary white cast iron, low alloy white cast iron and medium manganese spheroidal graphite white cast iron. And since 70s the high alloy white cast iron it is mainly research material. The main research and development focus on high chromium series white cast iron. High tungsten series white cast iron. And also boron white cast iron. In recent years the study of high chromium series white cast iron have a series of breakthroughs.

Consequently the research on the alloying theory and related production technology of the anti wear white cast iron have great improvement. Eespecially the abrasion resistant material and the production technology of the grinding ball and liner can compare with the international advanced level. Composite bimetal rolls and other bimetal composite materials and production process have formed their own unique production system. Hence the products satisfying the requirements of users.

2.1 Ordinary white cast iron

At present due to isothermal quenching process the matrix structure of the common white cast iron is bainite. As a result the eutectic carbide is granular. Which application area is grinding ball and small liner.

2.2 low alloy white cast iron

The main eutectic carbides in this type of white cast iron are M3C type (HV most in 1100~1400). The distribution of eutectic carbide is reticulate. And the toughness is low. Most of the eutectic carbides application area is the field of low stress abrasive wear. Finally in grinding balls, the commonly used low alloy white cast iron are 1. Cr- Mo – Cu white cast iron. And 2. Manganese molybdenum and manganese tungsten white cast iron. In the following articles we’ll introduce the two low alloy white cast iron.

Abrasion-Resistant White Cast Iron 9-ASTM A532_A532M

Abrasion-Resistant White Cast Iron 9

-high vanadium cast iron


1.3 High vanadium cast iron

The high vanadium abrasion-resistant white cast iron-one of the wear resistant cast iron. Due to its anti-wear properties and comprehensive mechanical properties (especially toughness) then designes the high vanadium cast iron. As a result its properties are more than high chromium wear resistant white cast iron. The hardness of vanadium carbide (HV) is much higher than the hardness of chromium carbide HV. It is well known. And its eutectic carbides are granular (spheroidal). Therefore it plays an active and effective role in the resistance to grinding and mechanical properties.


At present the commonly used vanadium cast iron are 6%V and 1% Cr type. 12%Cr and 9%V type also. Their wear resistance are higher than that of 15-2 type high chromium white cast iron. It is worth pointing out that high vanadium cast iron is not suitable for high temperature anti-wear castings. The maximum temperature should not exceed 700℃.

Abrasion-Resistant White Cast Iron 8-ASTM A532_A532M

Abrasion-Resistant White Cast Iron 8

-ASTM A532_A532M


1.2  Alma abrasion-resistant cast iron

Alma abrasion-resistant cast iron is an anti wear cast iron which main alloy element is manganese. The British company research and develope the material. In conclusion there are 3 types: W, WS and also WHS type.


W type is high manganese white cast iron. There are 4 kinds of type: W1, W2, W4 and W12 type. Type W1 is pearlite matrix. And Type W2 is martensitic matrix. The W4 type is the matrix of A body in the cast state by adding more amount of alloying elements. And furthermore it can turns to martensitic matrix after heat treatment. Hence its hardness can reach up to HB650. The eutectic carbide is three surface crystal and prismatic crystal. Consequently its toughness is more than the common white cast iron. The W12 matrix is M + A base. Also Mn and Cr are the main alloying elements. As a result the ball mill lining plate and other anti wear castings are their common application area.


The WS type is martensitic nodular iron with high manganese. The main chemical components are Si (2.5% to 3.6%), Mn (5% to 6%) and Al (1.5% to 2.0%). Therefore the material has high wear resistance property and toughness also. As a result the grinding balls, liners, hammers and other castings are their common application area for this material.


The WHS type – gray cast iron with high manganese. The  main chemical composition are C: 3.5 % ~ 4.25 %, Mn: 7.5 % ~ 8.0 % and Si: 2.5 % ~ 3.5 %.


Abrasion-Resistant White Cast Iron 7-ASTM A532_A532M

Abrasion-Resistant White Cast Iron 7

-ASTM A532_A532M


By the end of the 60s many industrial countries used Cr26, Cr27 and Cr28 white cast iron to produce castings. The products not only require good impact wear resistance but also require good heat resistance. In 1965 Japan introduced Cr27 high chromium white cast iron to produce crusher hammer.


In 1967 the white cast iron had successful application on the bell of the blast furnace. Which reasonably replaced the original high chromium steel and low alloy steel. And also it obviously improved the service life of the blast furnace. Some countries also use Cr26 high chromium cast iron to produce more severe grinding balls.


In recent years the alloy elements such as Ni, Mo, V, W, Ti, B and Nb added into the high chromium white cast iron. That will further improve the properties of high chromium cast iron. And by the effect of the composite alloy it further refines the microstructure. Thus effectively improve its wear resistance. And also have comprehensive mechanical properties.

Abrasion-Resistant White Cast Iron 6-ASTM A532_A532M

Abrasion-Resistant White Cast Iron 6-ASTM A532_A532M


In following table 3 lists the typical brands and related properties of high chromium white cast iron.

Table 3 Typical grades and related properties of commonly used high chromium white cast iron


Material grade                                         chemical composition % The maximum cross section / mm of the pearlite in the air quenching Hardness HRC


Cr Mo Cu Ni Si Cast state quenched state softening state
12Cr 2.0-3.5 11-14 ≤     1.5 ≤     1.2 0.5-1.0 ≤     1.0 60 49 60
15-3 high C 2.8-3.6 14-16 2.5-3.6 ≤     1.2 0.5-1.0 ≤     1.0 120 50-56 60-67 37-44
15-3 low C 2.4-2.8 14-16 2.4-2.8 ≤     1.2 0.5-0.8 ≤     1.0 70-90 44-48 58-63 35-40
15-2-1 2.8-3.5 14-16 1.9-2.2 0.5-1.2 0.6-0.9 ≤     1.0 200 50-55 60-67 40-44
20-2-1 2.6-2.9 19-21 1.4-2.0 0.5-1.2 0.6-0.9 ≤     1.0 >200 50-54 60-67 38-43
2.2-2.8 24-28 0.3-1.0 ≤     0.8 0-3.0 ≤     1.0 200 48-50 ≧ 56


Abrasion-Resistant White Casting Iron 1

Abrasion-Resistant White Casting Iron brief introduction


About one hundred years ago abrasion-resistant white casting iron began applying as an anti-wear material when the malleable iron was invented. It has

Wear - resistant white cast iron.
Wear – resistant white cast iron.

experienced from a single species to many varieties. From low alloying to high alloying. From pearlite matrix to martensitic matrix organization. And from M3C eutectic carbide to M7C3 eutectic carbide phase. Consequently it has achieved systematization and standardization. And also it has become an indispensable functional metal material. As a result it is active material in the field of abrasion-resistant.

Following the nickel hard white cast iron (Ni – Hard), the high chromium white cast iron (Cr 8% ~ 38%) has been studied successively in the United States and other countries since 1930s. In which Cr15 – Mo3, Cr20 – Mo2 – Cu1 are the typical high chromium white cast iron. It has occupied the dominant position in the field of mining, metallurgy, building materials, electric power, chemical fertilizer and so on. In conclusion it shows good social and economic benefits.


1. Brief introduction to the abrasion resistant white cast iron

Abrasion resistant white cast iron has gone through 3 rounds. The first generation of ordinary white cast iron. The second generation of nickel hard cast iron Ni – Hard. Furthermore the third generation of high chromium white cast iron. Now it has reached the level of serialization, standardization and stabilization of production. High chromium white cast iron and high chromium abrasion resistant steel have occupied the dominant position in the production of abrasion-resistant castings. Such as grinding balls and lining plates. It shows good performance and good economic benefits.


Continue to 。。。

Sand casting —-Special Alloy of the most valuable

Sand casting products are produced by pouring molten metal into sand mold cavity to form the products. Steel, iron, nonferrous alloy casting are available. .Because of sand mold casting molding materials used in the cheap, simple mold manufacturing. Piece of casting production and mass production are able to adapt to. It has been the basic technology of casting production.


Material Capabilities

Ductile Iron 

GGG40~70, FCD400~700, QT400~700, EN-GJS-400-18-LT

Grey Iron

grey iron sand casting
grey iron sand casting


GG20, GG25, GG30, GG35, FC200-350, G2500~4000

Compacted Graphite Iron

RT350~450, EN-GJV-350/400/450

High SiMo-Ductile Iron

SiMo4.1*, STD-02-0811*, GRPSiMo*, and more

Austempered Ductile Iron


High Nickel Ductile Iron

Ductile iron castings
Ductile iron castings


Stainless steel

Low alloy steel
Wear – resistant white cast iron.

Resin Sand Casting—-Special alloy

Resin sand casting is to evenly mix the sand and resin, curing agent in the sandbox and mold. By heating or catalyst method makes its shape. Casting after closed box. Resin sand casting is a general designation. Precoated sand is one of them.

1. Because eliminate deformation factors in the process of resin sand molding.

High dimension accuracy of castings.

Surface of casting smooth-faced and clearcutness.

2. Because good resin sand flow, easy to tight, thus save workload, which simplify the modeling operation. High production efficiency and shorten the production cycle.
We produce several different grades of gray iron of casing at our foundries:

gray iron castings

resin sand casting wear resisting
Resin sand casting wear-resisting

Damped G1800…145-201 HBW,
FC150 HC…149-229 HBW,
FC150 B…170-235 HBW,
G3000… 187-241 HBW,
G3500 Base…187-255 HBW,
G3500 Alloyed…207-255 HBW,
G4000 Base …197-269 HBW,
G4000 Alloyed …217-269 HBW,

We produce several different grades of ductile iron castings at our foundries.

Ductile Iron

( ASTM A339)
60-40-18 (HT) …187 HBW max,
65-45-12 …156-217 HBW,
80-55-06 …187-255 HBW,
100-70-03 …241-302 HBW,
120-90-02 (Q&T),
ADI (GRADES 1 – 5),
Carbidic ADI.

Products manufactured:  Hydraulic housings, flywheels, weights, covers, brackets, turbo bearing housings, clutch housings, pulleys, brake rotors, Ductile Iron pipe
Compacted graphite iron
Compacted graphite iron has characteristics midway between ductile and gray iron and combines many of the properties of both.

Abrasion Resistant Cast Iron (ASTM A532)

Wear and Abrasion Resistant Cast Irons (White Irons)
Abrasion Resistant cast irons are widely used in abrasive wear applications involved in the crushing, grinding, milling and handling of abrasive materials such as minerals and ores, both dry and as slurry.
Markets served:  Agriculture, construction, commercial vehicle ,material handling, hydraulics, power tools, and power transmission, Mining, metallurgy, power plant, cement etc.

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Continuous Casting in Copper Special Alloy Tube

Continuous casting is molten metal, constantly poured into the mold. Casting solidification (crust), continuously drawn out from the other side of the mold. It can obtain random long or a specific length of castings.
The advantages:

The process has been widely used in industry,  such as continuous casting (steel or nonferrous metal ingot), continuous casting tube, etc. Comparison this kind of process and general process in foundry, it has the following advantages:
1, Because the metal is rapidly cooling, crystallization density, homogeneity and mechanical properties are all better.
2, Casting no riser gating system, so the concast in rolling and cutting head to tail, saves metal and improves the yield of products;
3, Simplified the working procedure, from modelling to other processes, and thus reduce the labor intensity. Required for production area ia also greatly reduced.
4, The production is easy to realize mechanization and automation, ingot casting as well as realize the continuous casting and rolling, it greatly improves the production efficiency.

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Our product:

Continuous casting zinc alloy rod
continuous-casting astm b505 copper-alloy-pipe
Continuous casting ASTM B505 copper alloy pipe
continuous casting-astm-b505-c85400-brass-pipe
Continuous casting ASTM B505 copper alloy pipe